Solar Panel: What Electrical Power can Produce?January 16, 2021
The installation of solar panel is an energy self-consumption option that more and more people are choosing to save on their electricity bills.
If you are also considering it, first you are interested in knowing some fundamental information, such as the amount of electrical power that this system can produce.
This information is important to estimate the approximate percentage by which you can reduce your monthly energy expenditure using this type of energy that is so abundant.
WHAT IS A SOLAR PANEL?
A solar module or panel is a structure that captures the energy of solar radiation and transforms it so that it is useful for humans.
The photovoltaic cells are the most important components of a solar panel. Explained in a very simple way, when the sun hits them, they release electrons and transform light energy into electrical energy.
By having a modular design, solar energy panels can be adapted both to large areas of land and to smaller spaces such as private homes or roofs of neighborhood communities.
The solar module is the basic element of a photovoltaic system. In addition, a solar panel kit includes:
- Charge regulator, to manage energy efficiently.
- Battery, to accumulate and save electrical energy.
- Inverter, to convert direct current into alternating current.
HOW MUCH ELECTRICITY DOES A SOLAR PANEL GENERATE?
To estimate how much a solar panel produces, various variables must be taken into account:
– TYPE OF PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
These can be crystalline or amorphous. The former are made up of crystallized silicon and the latter are uncrystallized. The crystallines have a higher yield than the first ones, but also a higher price.
– PHOTOVOLTAIC PANEL SIZE
It is generally between 200 × 100 cm and usually has 60 or 72 cells.
– AMOUNT OF LIGHT THAT THE PANEL RECEIVES DEPENDING ON ITS LOCATION
The orientation, inclination, and geographical position of the solar panel influence its performance. The ideal direction of the positioning of the panels is towards the south. If you are wondering how to calculate the inclination of a solar panel, it is best to choose an angle that is between 34 and 36 degrees.
– PANEL OUTPUT POWER
It is expressed in units of watts (W), and it is the maximum amount of energy that can be produced under ideal conditions of temperature and sunlight (solar irradiation of 1000 watts / m2, a standard atmosphere, and cells of the module at 25 degrees of temperature).
CLASSIFICATION OF SOLAR PANELS ACCORDING TO THEIR SECTIONS OF ELECTRIC POWER
Solar panels are usually classified into three groups according to their electrical power sections:
– 12 V SOLAR PANELS
Their power is between 5 W and 140 W and they have 36 cells. These panels produce enough voltage to charge a 12 V battery. They accept PWM charge regulators (they do not make the most of the energy generated) or MPPT maximizers (they achieve maximum performance).
– 24 V SOLAR PANELS
Their power is between 150 W and 195 W and they have 72 cells. These produce enough voltage to charge a 24V battery. They can work with a PWM charge controller or with an MPPT maximizer.
– 24V GRID CONNECTION PANELS
This type of panel provides high power at low voltage. They use special MPPT regulators. The plates, made up of 60 cells, generate more than 200 W. At first this was the alternative that was installed in solar gardens.
A solar panel produces energy in Watts (W), while our electrical appliances consume it in kilowatts (kW). A kilowatt is 1000 watts. A fundamental step prior to the installation of a photovoltaic system is to calculate how much energy you usually consume in your home, to determine how many solar panels you will need.
HOW TO CALCULATE THE ELECTRICAL POWER YOU NEED?
To roughly calculate the electrical power that you can supply with a photovoltaic system, you have to use this formula: average daily radiation of the area where you live multiplied by the maximum power of the installed solar panel.
You can check the average daily radiation in your area at the AEMET (State Meteorological Agency).
With the multiplication of these two concepts, you would obtain the annual energy that your plate is capable of providing you. If you divide it by 30, you will know the average monthly kW and if you divide it again by 1,000, you will get the figure of kW / h.
Once you have these data, you will have to contrast them with those of your electricity bill, and in this way, you will be able to orient yourself about the savings you will achieve thanks to a photovoltaic installation.
In any case, if you have any doubts, it is best to be advised by professionals.
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